Learning is a process where a student absorbs knowledge from material taught either through books or teachers. By learning, students become smart and are able to know all the knowledge taught. Meanwhile, teaching is also an important aspect of learning carried out by a teacher. In this process, the teacher must also master the right learning process so that students can understand what is being taught. In the world of psychology, there is a branch of science called educational psychology which aims to understand how teachers teach students in an educational environment. In addition, educational psychology also learns how students follow the learning process. The purpose of educational psychology is to increase the way students learn in order to better understand the material being taught and improve the teaching quality of a teacher either in terms of cognitive development, intelligence, motivation, self-concept, self-regulation, or their roles in education.
The Interest Topics in the Scope of Educational Psychology
Currently, the educational system is quite complex and some psychologists will deal with teachers, educators, teachers, and administrators to understand deeply how to increase the people quality in education so they can learn better. A psychologist usually has his or her own way based on theory in order to evaluate students or teachers who probably need some favor by creating a program such as https://hokiku88.org/ which has a purpose to help students who are trying to understand what their teachers teach and help teachers who want to increase his quality of teaching. Anyway, there are a few different topics that become the interest in this educational psychology field such as:
Instructional Design – It aims to help teachers build and design learning materials.
Educational Technology – To see some options for technology use that may support students learning the process.
Curriculum Development – It aims to optimize learning quality based on a curriculum created.
Special Education – It aims to give a favor to students who need special education and instruction.
Gifted Learners – It aims to give a favor to gifted students in increasing their skills and intelligence.
Organizational Learning – It aims to understand how people may learn in the field of organization.
Some Important Figures Behind the Educational Psychology History
Historically, there were some people or figures who played big roles in the process of educational psychology development. Some of those figures are among others:
William James: He was an American psychologist that was very famous thanks to his education lectures with a title of “Talks to Teachers on Psychology,” It focused on how teachers can help students learn the material they taught.
John Locke: He was a philosopher that found the tabula rasa concept, an understanding about human mind which is considered as a blank slate since he or she was born and knowledge can only be obtained through learning and experience.
Alfred Binet: He was a psychologist from France who had developed the first intelligence tests in the world of education physiology.
John Dewey: He was a popular educational reformer and psychologist who had the idea of learning through doing and the importance of progressive education
Jean Piaget: He was a psychologist from Swiss who was very popular for his influential theory related to cognitive development in students.
B.F. Skinner: He was American behaviorist that found the concept of operational conditioning. The research of his on punishment and reinforcement still plays an important role in today’s education system.
History of Educational Psychology
Educational psychology has actually been found since many years ago despite it is still considered as a young subfield. Somehow, educational psychology has already experienced so many developments since it was first introduced. Before the late 1800s, psychology was not known as a separate science, but many educational philosophers started to interest in this field.
Who was the father of educational psychology? Some people consider that Johann Herbart was the father of educational psychology who believed that a topic of learning can really influence students’ interest in learning and he also suggested that teachers need to give the proper instruction to make the students feel interested in the material better.
Instead of Johann Herbart, there was also William James who was a philosopher as well as a psychologist that also gives a contribution to developing education psychology. He created the first textbook that talked about educational psychology. At the same time, there was also Alfred Bined who was a psychologist from France and also had a big role in the development of popular IQ test. The test aimed to identify students capability in learning as well as the developmental delay in order to make particular educational programs.
Education is a major factor in human formation. Education plays a role in shaping the good or bad of human beings according to normative measures. On the other hand, the process of development and human education not only occurs and is influenced by the educational process that exists in the formal education system (school) only. Humans throughout their lives will always get influence from family, school, nature, and the wider community or we call it as environmental education.
What is environmental education?
Basically, environmental education is a kind of education that allows you to connect with the surrounding environment. It is not only about learning, but it will teach us about both the built environment and the natural environment. With this kind of education, the people will be more aware of several problems that may influence our environment and how to improve or sustain it. It is very important to embed the education about the environment for students so they will care about our nature.
What are the benefits of environmental education?
There are a few advantages of environmental education that can also be applied to either formal education or informal education such as:
- Environmental education can provide information to students about the importance of protecting the environment.
- It can give awareness to students about the importance of the environment.
- It can find out how sensitive students are to the surrounding environment.
- Providing opportunities for everyone to gain knowledge, skills, attitudes/behaviors, motivation, and commitment, which are needed to work individually.
- Environmental education includes the affective aspects of behavior, values, and commitment needed to build a sustainable society.
- Environmental education in schools is one of the implementations of character education. Character education and environmental education instill character values to students which include knowledge (cognitive), awareness or willingness (effective), and action (psychomotor) to implement these values.
- The process of developing the values on which becomes the base of the character requires an ongoing process, carried out through various subjects in the curriculum and one of them is through environmental educations,
- Education is a planned effort in developing the potential of learners so that they have a system of thinking, values, morals, and beliefs that are inherited by their people and develop that heritage in a direction that is suitable for present and future lives.
- Education is also a community and nation’s effort in preparing its young generation for a better life for the people and nation in the future. Sustainability is marked by cultural inheritance and character that has been owned by the people and nation.
Educational psychology specifically describes activities or human activities in relation to the educational situation. For example, how to attract attention so that lessons can be easily accepted, how to learn and so on. It also has a big relation to educational science and games https://daduonline88.com/. Educational science requires learners to understand all about science materials. Somehow, teachers who bring this lesson need to use some approaches in the science learning. What are the approaches that a teacher can take?
It is a learning approach that starts from a specific one to or towards the general one or starts from examples to a conclusion.
It is the opposite of an inductive approach, which is an approach that starts from the general to or towards the specific or starts from the conclusion to the examples.
It is an approach that directs students to use the environment as a learning resource. In the implementation of the environmental approach, students are generally taught outside the classroom. But, it is not impossible under certain conditions or to study certain objects can be carried to bring the environment into the classroom or into the laboratory.
It is an approach that directs students to master the concept correctly. This approach is very important to avoid students being misconstrued.
It is a process-oriented approach, not to results. In this approach, students are expected to truly master the concept. Students not only understand the concept but can also illustrate or model and even conduct experiments. If students are able to do the learning process properly and correctly, it is assumed that they will be able to receive learning outcomes well.
It is an approach that directs or trains students to be able to solve problems in the field of science or study fields studied. Problems are differences or gaps that occur between the desired and the reality that occurs so that the desire arises to solve it or find a solution.
It is an approach that directs students to find knowledge, ideas, and information through their own efforts.
Community technology science approach
Basically, the community technology science approach in learning is carried out by the teacher through topics discussed by connecting between science and technology related to their use in society. The goals include increased motivation and learning achievement in addition to broadening students’ knowledge.
Educational psychology is basically oriented towards the process of activities of people who study and teach including approaches, strategies, results, teaching and learning methods used by both learners and teachers. In the end, educational psychology can be used as a practical guide as well as a theoretical study because educational psychology is basically one of the psychology disciplines that investigates the psychological problems that occur in the world of education.
So, what are the benefits of learning educational psychology?
Understanding student differences
Each student has different abilities and potential. As a teacher, it is necessary to understand the differences in the characteristics of each student, the stages of development and the type of behavior. This understanding can produce appropriate learning interactions and effective and efficient learning.
Not only that, the teacher’s understanding of these differences makes it possible to provide learning interactions that are different for each student so that the approach and learning process can be more acceptable without distinguishing students personally or choosing favoritism.
Creating a conducive learning climate in the classroom
The ability of teachers to create a conducive learning climate improves the effectiveness of teaching and learning activities in the classroom. Knowledge about the basic principles of approach and pleasant interaction with students in accordance with each student’s characteristics will provide a conducive learning climate and an effective learning process.
Choosing the right learning strategy
Studying psychology to get to know the characteristics of each student and knowing the preferred learning method such as from https://dadupokerqq.com/ will provide the ability to choose the right learning strategies in the classroom. The right learning strategy will provide an effective teaching and learning situation.
Providing guidance to students
Psychology gives the teacher the ability to be a guide for students with an emotional approach from the heart to heart to gain students’ trust. When students have given the teacher a sense of trust, the process of solving problems for an effective learning process can be done easily.
Interacting appropriately with students
The principles of psychology underline the right way of communicating in learning. Communication with students is expressed by placing themselves according to the stages of student development. Thus, it can provide a pleasant interaction. Adjustment to the stages of growth and development of students create a teacher’s understanding from the students perspective and know the desires or learning processes that they like and also the character of each student.
Providing evaluation of learning outcomes
As an educator, by studying educational psychology, you will be able to provide a fair assessment of learning outcomes. In addition, it can also adjust to each student’s abilities without distinguishing from one another. Evaluation of learning outcomes can be in the form of intelligence tests, attitudes, and activeness in attending school activities. These three things determine the quality of repairs whether the behavior of students becomes better.
Provision of educational psychology for teachers can provide support, encouragement or motivation for their students in the spirit of higher learning. Educational psychology teaches about understanding each student’s characteristics and providing motivation according to the character so that it is more effective in influencing students’ learning spirit. Giving positive support to students results in increased enthusiasm for learning.
Set learning goals
Educational psychology helps teachers to determine learning objectives for what behavioral changes are desired as learning outcomes. Learning objectives are set for each material that will be given. Therefore, learning objectives are used as a benchmark for the suitability of learning outcomes whether they are considered successful or not.
The use of appropriate learning media
Knowledge of educational psychology is also useful to determine the right learning media for students, for example, audio, visual, motoric, and so on as fun learning activities. Learning media is also adjusted to the learning material that will be delivered. Students are sometimes more interested in learning processes that use audiovisual components in the process of understanding the material and are more efficient in developing students’ imagination.
Educational mathematical becomes the most difficult teaching process that many math teachers face. Somehow, concerning educational psychology, educational mathematics has to be done correctly in order to give a better understanding to students. Anyway, there are a few ultimate tips on how to teach math well to make students understand it easily.
- Use a variety of multimedia
Some illustration in the form of images in boring textbooks and one-way teaching systems can make students become more confused with mathematics. Somehow, a teacher needs to use some teaching media such as using videos https://funbet88.net/ or animation that illustrate the issues so students become more attentive because there is a visual appeal.
- Start with a short question
For the beginning, we can provide short mathematical problems with fewer known elements. Then, lure students to ask other instructions that can help solve the problem slowly. This is to find out whether students have understood the concept of formulas and made them more active.
- Create games
It is undeniable that creating a game is a good way to make students interested in learning match. Well, a teacher can arrange games competition between groups to solve math problems. The ability of students can also be seen from this method because they do not get score pressure so that we can pure measure the extent to which the students understand the subject matter.
- Map your students
It is indeed quite difficult to analyze each student individually, but a teacher is able to start with students mapping through the most difficult material for students. Then, the teacher can analyze their quiz results and exams, and evaluate the students who have difficulties in learning Mathematics. Thus, the teacher will understand who need more help in this educational mathematics.
- Create a learning group
After students are well mapped, you can form a study group consisting of students who are expected to complement each other. For example, a combination of several students who are quick and easy to understand with some students who have difficulty in learning math. Thus, students will be able to help each other and then the students will understand the material well.
Well, those are the five ultimate ways that any math teachers try in order to help students understand this difficult lesson. In fact, there are actually other ways concerning the educational mathematics that will make teachers feel easy to teach their students.
Educational psychology has become the basis for the formation and development of curriculum systems, learning, and assessment in the world of education. Its contribution to the development of the world education can be explained as follows:
The role of psychology in the education curriculum
Psychologically, students’ self-development is based on affective, cognitive, and psychomotor abilities. This ability can be seen in the development of attitudes, motivation, behavior, and other components. The learning component is a process from input to output. Then, the use of the curriculum as a framework for the flow of inputs to the output or good results requires the nature of psychology.
The curriculum that is currently being developed is a competency-based curriculum. Competence aims to develop capabilities in skills, knowledge, and reflection in thinking and acting. The habit of thinking and acting with consistent self-reflection allows the formation of a superior and competent students.
The role of psychology in the learning system
Associated with psychological theories that affect a person in behaviour, psychology also influences the learning system in the world of education positively. Students become serious about learning when the psychological response is guided by the teacher well. In addition, the process of understanding a topic’s learning becomes easier by solving the learning problems experienced. The desire becomes higher with the psychological approach of the teacher with pleasant interaction and communication.
Besides, educational psychology has also given birth to the principles of learning as described by Sudirwo:
– A person who learns must have a goal.
– Goals are born of needs, not coercion
– Must be willing to experience some difficulties.
– Learning is proven by behavior change.
– Learning requires insight into what must be learned and understood.
– Someone needs guidance.
– Exams need to be done but are preceded by understanding.
The role of psychology in the assessment system
Psychology has also given its role in the scoring system. For example, an educator can use a psychological test to find out the level of intelligence of students, aptitude tests from https://sinarmas88.win/ to find out potential talents contained in students so that it is easier to provide guidance in helping develop the students’ self-potential.
The personality aspect test can also help teachers know their students’ personalities better so that they can provide a better approach in the learning process. Various psychological tests can help provide an assessment of each student to make it easier to bridge the wishes, potential, and dreams of students in accordance with their abilities and talents.
When talking about psychology, particularly in the field of education, some educational psychologists may consider a few different perspectives when they face some problem in an education system. These perspectives can describe how students or learners can increase their skills when they are following a certain learning process.
Here are a few perspectives that most educational psychologists see as important parts.
The behavioral perspective is to explain that students behaviors can be learned based on conditioning. Most of the psychologists that consider this perspective as the option count on the operant conditioning principles in order to describe how the learning process occurs. For instance, instructions, educators, and teachers can use simple items to give a reward to students with good behaviors such as using toys or candy. In fact, this method may not totally succeed in certain cases, especially in the term of attitudes, intrinsic motivation for learning, cognition.
The developmental perspective gives a clear definition of how learners get some new knowledge and skills in the learning process as they join the class. One of the most popular development theory that is also considered as the most important one was first introduced by Jean Piaget with his cognitive development stage. It explains how kids or learners can develop and grow smartly and intellectually. This can be very useful for any education psychologists who want to understand what learners can get or do as they grow. In this case, it can also help teachers prepare the best instructional materials according to learners’ ages.
The cognitive perspective has been experiencing a great development since it was first introduced in which it focuses on several aspects such as emotions, belief, motivation, and memories that may contribute it the learning process. Cognitive psychology aims to understand how students learn, think, remember, and process information in the field of education. This cognitive perspective is preferable because educational psychologists are able to know how learners or students can be motivated to study, how they are able to solve some issues in the learning process, and how they can remember that materials they study, and much more.
The constructivist approach belongs to a new theory in the field of educational psychology that understands who students can actively construct the information they get from the learning process related to the world. Constructivism also relies on several aspects such as cultural impacts and social influence that can influence how kids study or learn.
Somehow, the field of educational psychology may be still a new discipline that will keep growing up as many experts feel interested in knowing about how students learn something in order to increase the quality of learning process.